Kanamycin is an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis, and bacteria can become resistant if they produce an enzyme that destroys kanamycin. The kanamycin resistance plasmid is often used as a selection gene or marker gene in molecular cloning. It can be used for oral and intravenous injection and is effective against a variety of bacterial infections, isolated from Streptomyces kanamycin.
Some strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus are sensitive to kanamycin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram-positive bacteria (except Staphylococcus aureus), anaerobic bacteria, atypical mycobacteria, rickettsia, fungi, viruses, etc. are resistant to kanamycin. Microorganisms have certain cross-resistance between kanamycin and other aminoglycosides.
It has strong antibacterial activity against a variety of Gram-negative and positive bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues, digestive tract, respiratory tract, and urogenital tract. Mainly used for enteritis, peritonitis, perihepatitis, salpingitis, air sac inflammation and pullorum caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Salmonella.
Dosage: Intramuscular injection: 0.1ml/Kg of body weight for livestock and poultry, once a day for 3-5 days.
Clinical recommendation: 1. The injection has excellent effect on systemic infection caused by septicaemia Escherichia coli, Salmonella and infectious serositis of ducks. 2. It is used for diarrhea and overfeeding caused by enteritis.
Adverse reactions: 1. Kanamycin has the same ototoxicity as streptomycin, and is stronger than streptomycin and gentamicin. 2, kanamycin also has nephrotoxicity, but less vestibular toxicity. Kanamycin is less toxic than neomycin. 3. Cats are more sensitive to kanamycin, and normal doses can cause nausea, vomiting, salivation and ataxia. 4. The neuromuscular blocking effect is often caused by the overdose of kanamycin. After general anesthesia in dogs and cats, when penicillin and kanamycin are used in combination to prevent infection, accidental death often occurs because general anesthetics and muscle relaxants have an enhanced effect on neuromuscular blockade.
Matters needing attention: 1. Kanamycin and other aminoglycosides have cross-allergic phenomenon, and sick animals allergic to aminoglycosides are prohibited. 2. It should be used with caution when dehydration occurs in sick animals (which can lead to increased blood drug concentration) or renal function damage. 3. When treating urinary tract infection, carnivores and omnivores can take sodium bicarbonate orally at the same time to make the urine alkaline to enhance the efficacy.
Efficacy of kanamycin sulfate in the treatment of swine asthma
Porcine asthma, also known as porcine endemic pneumonia, is a chronic lung disease in pigs with the main symptoms of cough and asthma.
1. Popular characteristics. The disease can be infected regardless of individual, age or breed. Lactating and young pigs are the most susceptible, followed by sows and lactating sows in late pregnancy. Fattening pigs are generally chronically infected. The main route of infection is through the respiratory tract of pigs. The disease has no obvious seasonality, but it occurs frequently in winter and spring and when the seasons change. In addition, factors such as humidity, high density, and poor ventilation are also easy to induce. At present, the incidence of the disease is high, the symptoms are not obvious, and the mortality rate is low. In actual production, most died due to secondary infection with other respiratory diseases.
2. Symptoms. The main symptoms are cough and wheezing, while body temperature and appetite are generally normal; the elderly with the disease course show lack of energy, thin body, rough coat, slow growth, and increased feed-to-meat ratio.
Three, autopsy. The lesions were limited to the lung and intra-abdominal lymph nodes, with symmetrical “pancreatic changes” in both lung lobes.
Fourth, the differential diagnosis. It is mainly different from swine influenza, swine pneumonia, and infectious pleurisy. Influenza: sudden outbreak, rapid spread, elevated body temperature in pigs, short disease course (about 1 week), and short epidemic period. Swine asthma: The body temperature of pigs is not high, the disease course is long, the spread is slow, and the epidemic period is very short. Porcine lung disease: Acute cases are mostly symptoms of sepsis and fibrinous pleuropneumonia, with severe systemic symptoms and short course of disease, and sepsis and fibrinous pleuropneumonia are found in autopsy; in chronic cases, body temperature is unstable, cough is severe, asthma is mild, severe weight loss, autopsy When see the liver of different sizes of purulent or necrotic foci. Pig asthma: There is no major change in the body temperature and appetite of the pig, there is a pancreas-like lesion in the lung, and there is no change in sepsis and pleurisy. Porcine infectious pleuropneumonia: pigs with elevated body temperature, severe systemic symptoms, and pleurisy symptoms at autopsy; porcine asthma: pigs with low body temperature, mild or no systemic symptoms, and pancreas-like lesions in the lungs without pleuritic lesions.
5. Prevention and control measures. ( 1) While strengthening daily management, inoculate the affected areas (fields) with attenuated swine asthma disease vaccine, 2 times a year for males and sows, and once for 15-18 days of age. (2) Intramuscular injection of kanamycin sulfate, 30,000-50,000 units/kg body weight, 2 times a day.
6. Analysis. A long course of disease, low mortality, and inconspicuous clinical symptoms are typical features of this disease. Therefore, it is not easy to be found in the early stage of the disease, and it is easy to delay the disease. In addition, the disease has a long course of disease and is difficult to eradicate. Once infected, it is difficult to remove. The biggest harm of the disease in the breeding industry is to reduce the efficiency and increase the incidence of respiratory syndrome in pigs.