The role and use of acetylsalicylic acid

【Pharmacology】Acetylsalicylic acid is the most commonly used antipyretic and analgesic drug. It has strong anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects, and has the effect of promoting uric acid excretion. In addition, it has anti-platelet aggregation effect.

This product is easily absorbed after oral administration, and the concentration in blood reaches a peak within 1~2 hours. It is rapidly hydrolyzed into salicylic acid by lipase catalysis in the body, metabolized in the liver, and excreted by the kidney. It is often used for colds, fever, headache, muscle pain, nerve pain and active rheumatoid arthritis.

【Preparation】Tablet: 0.05g, 0.1g, 0.2g, 0.3g, 0.5g per tablet. Effervescent tablet:

0.3g, 0.5g per tablet. Enteric-coated tablet: 0.3g, 0.5g per tablet. Suppository: 0.1g, 0.3g, 0.45g, 0.5g per tablet

【Notice】

1. Patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer disease should use this product with caution or not.

2. Long-term use of a large amount of this product or mistakenly ingest a large amount of this product can cause acute poisoning, high fever, dehydration, collapse, coma, delirium, vomiting, profuse sweating and life-threatening.

3. This product can cause fetal abnormalities, and pregnant women should avoid using it as much as possible.

4. Do not take this product before and after drinking, as it can damage the gastric mucosal barrier and cause bleeding.

5. Children around 10 years old should not use this product after suffering from influenza or chickenpox, otherwise it may induce Reye syndrome, which can lead to death in severe cases.

【New clinical use】

1. Treatment of vernal conjunctivitis According to reports, Fu Xun’an and others tried oral aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) to treat patients with refractory vernal conjunctivitis, and the effect was satisfactory. Treatment method: Oral aspirin enteric-coated tablets, the dosage standard: 5mg for children /(kgd), orally divided into 4 times. Adults are 50mg each time, 4/d. 2 weeks is a course of treatment. Generally, continuous medication is used for 1~2 courses. Among them, 2 cases were cured (the subjective symptoms basically disappeared, the conjunctiva had no obvious congestion, the cornea was normal, the proliferative lesions were significantly reduced, and there was no recurrence after stopping the drug for more than 1 year), and 2 cases were markedly effective (the subjective symptoms and signs were significantly relieved compared with the previous ones, and the recurrence occurred within 1 year after the drug was stopped. ) 12 cases, 6 cases were effective (the subjective symptoms were relieved and the signs were relieved compared with the previous ones), the total effective rate was 95%. Aspirin 500mg/d, orally divided into 3 times. The author believes that the occurrence of this disease may be related to retinal embolism. Aspirin inhibits abnormal platelet aggregation, so it is effective.

3. Treatment of senile skin pruritus Some people use aspirin to treat senile skin pruritus patients, and they have received gratifying effects, which can make the pruritus disappear or reduce, the cure rate is 70%, and the total effective rate is 91%. The control group treated with cyproheptadine The total effective rate was 70%, and the difference was significant. Method: Aspirin (enteric-coated tablet) 300m each time, 3/d, orally, 1 week as a course of treatment. The mechanism, some people think that skin cold can cause vasoconstriction and catecholamines from sensory nerves Peripheral release, leading to platelet aggregation, causing the release of prostaglandins and serotonin and causing itching. Aspirin can inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins and platelet aggregation, thereby controlling itching.

4. Treatment of diabetes It is reported that some people use aspirin to treat diabetic patients, and they have also achieved significant results. Methods: 60 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were divided into 3 groups: group A, 22 cases, taking aspirin 50mg/d; group B 20 cases, taking aspirin

125mg/d. The above two groups were taken in the morning every day for 2 weeks. There were 18 cases in group C, which was the control group and took placebo. Results: The platelet aggregation rate decreased significantly in groups A and B after taking the medicine; respectively decreased by 1.13mmol/L (2.3mg/dl) and 1.02mmol/L (18.3mg/d), while there was no change in group C. According to research, aspirin may promote endogenous insulin secretion and liver glycogen synthesis, inhibit intestinal The absorption of sugar by the tract and promote the uptake of sugar by the tissues.

5. Treatment of biliary ascariasis According to the report in the 16th issue of “Chinese Community Physician” magazine in 2008, Bian Lidong applied acetylsalicylic acid to treat biliary ascariasis, and the effect was remarkable. Usage: acetylsalicylic acid tablets 1g each time, 2~3 /d, for 2-3 days, stop the drug after the paroxysmal colic stops for 24 hours, and then perform routine deworming.

6. Prevention and treatment of rectal and colon adenomas 1121 patients who had recently suffered from adenomas were randomly divided into placebo control group 372 cases, 81mg/d aspirin group 377 cases and 325mg/d aspirin group 372 cases. The average follow-up was 3 years , and received at least one colonic examination every year to analyze the differences in the risk of new rectal and colonic adenomas among the three groups. Endoscopy results showed that 47% of the control group had one or more adenomas, and the 81 mg/d aspirin group accounted for 47%. The risk of new adenoma was significantly lower in the latter two groups (both P=0.04). Compared with the control group, the unadjusted relative risk of new adenoma was 81 mg/d. d Aspirin group was 0.81, 325mg/aspirin group was 0.96; the relative risks of new malignant adenomas were 0.59 and 0.83, respectively, and the relative risks were the lowest in the low-dose aspirin group. The researchers believe that long-term low-dose aspirin It does have a certain chemical preventive effect on new colorectal adenomas. Yuan Zhimin: A randomized controlled study of aspirin in the prevention and treatment of rectal and colon adenomas. New Medicine, 2004, 35(2): 116]

7. Reducing Ovarian Cancer At the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Obstetrics and Gynecologic Oncologists, an observational study showed that regular aspirin use can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer by 40%. Akhmed Khanov et al from NYU Women’s Health A subset of the 14,000 subjects studied were selected and studied. Data on aspirin use were collected by postal questionnaires from 1994 to 1996. During an average follow-up period of 12 years, Of the 140 women who developed ovarian cancer, 68 completed the study on aspirin. The findings were based on data from 68 ovarian cancer patients and 680 cancer-free controls. Akhmed Khanov noted , taking aspirin 3 times a week for at least 6 months can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer epithelial cancer, and if taking longer time can increase this protective effect. The mechanism of action may be due to the anti-inflammatory effect of aspirin.

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